Experience of industry of Chinese machine tool develops via 60 one’s remaining years, there was great progress since reforming and opening especially, but big on whole and not strong. Although production value of chinese mainland machine tool already occupied world first place two years continuously, forehead of machine tool entrance and expenditure are more successive and old hold world first position, but the difference with our country and very bigger than still having phase of market of international machine tool. 2010, the production value numerical control of machine tool of cutting of our country metal is changed rate for 52.5% , but compare Korea 88% low 30 many percent. The numerical control lathe that Korea produces and machining center class return the product of China of summary prep above. But at present the bed of our country still with economy model give priority to, the product is add the cost is very low. Our country enterprise also has the advantage with particular oneself, if they have old and traditional machine tool to produce a base, in some at the same time production link has certain technology to accumulate, especially the cast of mechanical part / the technology of forging technology precipitates, financing channel is extensive, the company that has share of certain and traditional market and capital to accumulate is OK in advance establishs big company group, through buying, accuse means is absorbed and digest foreign opposite advanced technique. Accordingly, our country enterprise needs to seize good development opportunity, strengthen own innovation, raise technical level and industrialization scale, develop rising market actively, compete in order to answer to the market that did not come. Current, enterprise of our country machine tool lacks the consciousness that own innovation and fundamental theory study and capacity, this restricted the development of technology of our country machine tool, want to change this kind of current situation, be about to study the characteristic of craft of user industry product and demand deep, development of combinative craft characteristic goes Gao Shuiping to machine equipment, also want to pay attention to the research that fundamental theory works at the same time, such ability let industry of our country machine tool be in before long there is better progress in the future.
The country is own major equipment and limit make research and development product — fierce overweights 4 times again ultimate machine tool is used in Tianjin consign, phylogeny of Chinese heavy-duty machine tool greets new milepost. These 4 machine tools all are home ” first are covered ” , among them two are a country great and special. They break limit system to build foreign technology to block, those who create many China and even world most. The country is great and special lathe of mill of vertical of 28 meters of numerical control, diameter of the biggest treatment height of 28 rice, treatment 13 meters, machining error 0.02 millimeter, finer than hair silk, all be the world most, homebred machine tool machines fill spare parts of key of large nucleus report is blank. The country weighs big special DL250 numerical control to exceed heavy-duty Pullman, bearing 500 tons, achieve the world most, for our country strategy equipment development provides safeguard of crucial processing technique. Boring axis diameter amounts to the boring machine of be born mill of 320 millimeter, product standards is the world most. Dragon door span milling machine of 10 meters boring of door of numerical control dragon, it is China the first, the world is scarce. Heavy-duty machine tool is the mark of national industry foundation. 2009, be in with driving adversary ” to beat a drum ” in, odd pen of company of luck of contest of Tianjin of Wu Chongzhong mark is close contract of 200 million yuan of large order, make 4 home ” first are covered ” machine tool. Every machine tool all wants sprint world most, equipment of much stage limit is made is unprecedented more. Fierce weighs president yellow as a rule, in bound of global machine tool, fierce is exclusive again one can make the world go up the biggest the enterprise of machine tool of 4 different types, “Hubei is built ” the first phalanx that already stood in world heavy-duty machine tool on behalf of Chinese creation, than Russia of country of machine tool of humeral old brand, Germany. Standing vice-president Wu Bailin says association of Chinese machine tool industry, fierce weighs the consign of 4 heavy-duty machine tools, can shorten the world difference of the respect such as Chinese nucleus report, shipping, spaceflight, war industry.
Industry and Su Bo of informatization ministry undersecretary went to survey of group of Dalian machine tool to make an on-the-spot investigation a few days ago, dalian city classics is believed appoint the member that cliff of Liu of assistant of director, mayor inspects composition for survey. Su Bo inspected private plane of enterprise modular machine tool to assemble operation area of product line of lathe of operation area, numerical control, lathe product line and high-grade horizontal machining center seriously. Chen Yong of president of group of Dalian machine tool leaves introduced great opportunity to hold to scientific progress to watch in last few years, take the route that innovation drive develops, transform traditional production to create pattern with informatization, in two turn the positive result that obtains on confluence, and push a person + intelligence turns production working progress case. Survey makes an on-the-spot investigation group in spot of private plane exercise, wait for national emphasis industry, domain and international for industry of spaceflight, nucleus, car to group of Dalian machine tool well-known company offers the circumstance such as equipment of high end, whole set to have thorough knowledge. When product line of visiting lathe, numerical control, enquired the circumstance such as the application of the efficiency of product line, ERP in detail. After propagandist board browses the company culture to lathe operation area carefully, survey makes an on-the-spot investigation the group is right company culture construction gives reputably. In operation area of horizontal machining center, survey inspects group of countries that looked carefully at great opportunity to assume seriously to weigh the old special product, new product that offers for semiconductor industry, and the new product such as system of the component of numerical control function of own research and development, numerical control, enquired product function, level and applied circumstance in detail, accelerate transition to upgrade to great opportunity, adjust product structure, the practice that enters new-style industry and field actively gives affirm adequately and encourage. Su Bo listened to the progress case that intelligence of high-grade horizontal machining center turns great opportunity to production base plans and be built to introduce seriously. On the informal discussion that holds subsequently, su Bo removes to group of Dalian machine tool the tremendous change that after transforming, produces, and transform the traditional industry, two typical ways that change shirt-sleeve promotion level of management and product standard to offer sufficient affirmation with informatization, hope great opportunity is below current and grim economic situation, want to carry out the 18 great mind that fulfil a party in order to learn to be motivation, lay world advanced level, insist to innovate, seize opportunity, grab get right on the job really, practice hard exercise to benefit the internal organs, improve development quality, implementation company transition upgrades.
As the development of science and technology, mechanical production technology had profound change. Because the society is right the demand of product diversification is more strong, much breed, medium the proportion that small lot produces increases apparently, the common treatment device that uses a convention already got used to the treatment requirement of efficient, high quality, diversification hard. The application of technology of machine tool numerical control, shortened greatly the pre-construction time of machining, make the level of whole process automation of machining rises ceaselessly, also increased to make a system get used to all sorts of ability that produce conditional change at the same time. The basic composition of machine tool of cut of numerical control line includes noumenon of system of numerical control of ﹑ of system of machine program, high frequency power source, drive and machine tool. Machine program but by write artificially (dictate like inchoate 3B) , have plot on the computer now (like present CAXA, HL, HF, the process designing software such as YH) , create machine program next. The input of the program but by the face plate of numerical control system (veneer machine) undertake manual input, also can pass the computer 232 serial mouth undertakes transmission, also can undertake transmission with computer USB interface. Can consider from 3 respects when machine tool of cut of line of numerical control of choose and buy, it is a machine tool above all this physical ability denies the treatment that accords with his to ask, the quality of the machine tool how. It is numerical control system next, numerical control system has a lot of sort, selecting appropriate system is the key of machine tool of numerical control of choose and buy. Finally is driving unit, also be key of machine tool pilot, the treatment precision that different driving unit can achieve is different also, when choosing driving unit, the precision that wants the work that the basis processes asks to choose appropriate driving unit. Reach driving unit from system of numerical control of ﹑ of machine tool noumenon below 3 respects undertake an analysis: 1, the machine tool is noumenal choiceAbove all design of machine tool structure and add work measure and weight to want to achieve first-rate to match. To in large and laden workbench uses structure of the entire machining center that prop up. Such design ability have enough bear the weight ofing ﹑ stiffness, precision, fight brace up gender and precision maintain a gender. The mechanical drive that is feed system next should use ball guide screw, guide screw of whorl of triangle of excel of ball guide screw and echelon whorl guide screw, and ask the diameter of guide screw as far as possible somes big, increase tigidity. It is slideway again, workbench motion slideway is the key that assures workbench motion precision, the user should take seriously highly when type selecting. Observe the magnitude of the cross section of slideway above all, below coequal condition, brawnier, tigidity is better, more not easy generation is out of shape in treatment, ability assures a machine tool to be able to get highest precision and durable sex in long-term job. The common slideway structure on the market had the following kinds a few days ago: ① sets slideway of scroll of steel ball type; ② sets slideway of scroll of steel roller type; Slideway of ③ linear scroll. The first kind of distinction with the 2nd kind is in of slideway roll put oneself in another’s position, one is ball one is roller. Ball and slideway face are point contact, roller and slideway face are line contact, so its wearability is mixed bearing ability greatly excel ball type. And linear slippery course is a kind of scroll guides bring, it makes infinite scroll circulate between slide block and slippery course by ball bearing, make laden platform can along slippery course easily make linear motion with high accuracy, its coefficient of friction can fall to slide to the tradition guide the 1 ／ that bring 50, the made fixed position precision that can reach μ M level easily. The end between slide block and slippery course makes unit design, make line body slippery course can bear to control the bear that waits for each direction up and down at the same time, linear slippery course has more smooth-going and the motion of low noise is characteristic. Made precision maintains and carrying capacity greatly excel ball and roller type. In Japan at present Sha Di overcomes 3 water chestnut companies of company, Japan, Switzerland is to use the 3rd kind of structure in the machine tool that rare company of A of Xia Mier company, luck imports, pass contrast so, the user should consider the 3rd kind of structure as far as possible when type selecting. 2.Of numerical control system anthology matchNumerical control system is numerical control machine tool ” cerebrum ” , to the machine tool control information undertakes operation and processing. The principle of numerical control system can divide the basis to be mixed for system of economy numerical control system of standard type numerical control two kinds big. System of 2.1 economy numerical control System of economy numerical control looks from control method, point to system of open loop numerical control commonly. System of open loop numerical control is to show itself of numerical control system does not take the position to detect device, send by numerical control system a certain quantity of the instruction pulse with frequency, undertake by driving unit the machine tool locates. Below the situation that open loop system affects in exterior element, machine tool not movement or movement do not reach the designated position, but the system already arrived to appoint the position when the machine tool, right now the treatment precision of the machine tool will be reduced greatly. But because its structure is simple, react rapid, job is stabilized reliable, debug reach maintenance all very convenient, together with price is very low, but suffer a pace to enter speed of character of frequency of electric machinery quadrature and precision, feed, moment of force 3 person between restrict each other, of function rise be restricted. So, system of economy numerical control is used at numerical control to take silk thread cut and the economy with a few speed and precision not high demand quickly at present model in take machine tool of silk thread cut, in common the numerical control that takes filar machine tool quickly is changed wide application also receives in transforming. System of 2.2 nicety numerical control System of nicety numerical control includes system of numerical control of half closed circuit and system of numerical control of complete closed circuit. The positional signal of the servo electric machinery that system of numerical control of half closed circuit points to a machine tool commonly (photoelectricity coder) feedback arrives numerical control system, the system can undertake the position detects automatically compare with the error, can undertake compensating controlling to partial error, accordingly its control precision to want than system of open loop numerical control tall, but the numerical control system that compares complete closed circuit wants low. Outside the positional feedback that system of numerical control of complete closed circuit divides the servo electric machinery that includes a machine tool, the position of workbench of organic still bed detects device (use grating rule normally) positional signal feedbacks system, form total position follow-up control thereby, the system detects automatically in machining a process and compensate all position error. The treatment precision of system of numerical control of complete closed circuit is highest, but of this kind of system debug, maintenance is extremely difficult, and systematic price is very high, apply to medium, high-grade numerical control machine tool to go up only. Because open loop commands systematic price,want than closed-loop control system low much, because this is when system of choice numerical control, the price cost proportion that should consider numerical control system to take machine tool of whole platform numerical control, reach the requirement of machine tool itself according to the configuration circumstance of the machine tool next, medium, cheap machine tool uses open loop to control a system, medium, high-grade machine tool uses closed-loop control system. 3, of driving unit anthology matchDriving unit includes actuating device and electric machinery two parts, basically depend on the choice of actuating device to the choose and buy of driving unit, because electric machinery is general component, function difference the manufacturer with different consist in and model. Drive electric machinery basically can divide for: Reaction type situation enters drive electric machinery, Composite (also call permanent magnetism reaction type) the pace enters drive electric machinery and servo drive electric machinery 3 kinds big. Reaction type situation does not have winding into the rotor of drive electric machinery, by quadrature of the stress that be turned over by the stator winding generation of excitation implementation pace is entered move. Composite pace uses permanent magnet steel into the rotor of electric machinery, by excitation and the electromagnetism that permanent magnetism produces pitching moment realizes a pace to enter move. The pace gets the control of pulse into electric machinery, the direction of rotation of the ordinal changeable electric machinery through changing electrify, the rotate speed coming back of changeable electric machinery spends the frequency that changes pulse. The pace has certain step pitch precision into electric machinery, did not accumulate an error. But the efficiency that the pace enters electric machinery is low, pull the capacity that uses load not quite, pulse equivalent cannot too big, timing scope is not big. At present the pace can be divided into electric machinery for two-phase, three-phase, 5 equal a few kinds, commonly used is 5 photographs pace enters electric machinery. In very long in the past period of time, the pace takes very big market into electric machinery, but replacing for place of servo electric machinery stage by stage at present. At present commonly used servo electric machinery is communication servo electric machinery, in the axis of electric machinery end installs glazed report coder, through detecting frequency conversion of rotor angle in order to is controlled. Arrive from lowermost rotate speed top rotate speed, slippery movement of Dou Nengping of servo electric machinery, torsion wave motion is small. Servo electric machinery has longer overload capacity, have lesser moment of inertia and big locked-rotor torsion. Servo electric machinery has the very small frequency that start, very can fast quicken rated rotate speed from lowermost rotate speed. Use communication servo electric machinery to regard drive as parts of an apparatus, can form high accuracy with dc servo electric machinery, high-powered half closed circuit or closed-loop control system. Because communication is to not have inside servo electric machinery,brush a structure, need to maintain scarcely, volume is relatively minor, be helpful for rotate speed and power rise. Had replaced dc servo electric machinery inside very big range at present. Use high speed microprocessor and processor of special number signal (DSP) after complete digitlization communicates servo to appear, original hardware servo control turns into software servo control, the advanced algorithm in theory of a few contemporary control gets coming true, improved the performance of servo greatly then, because this servo is unit can bigger raise treatment efficiency and treatment precision, but the price of servo driving unit is higher also. Rise stage by stage as what servo controls a technology, at present servo driving unit is becoming the main force of driving unit stage by stage, the price of servo driving unit also is in step downServo driver has two kinds. One kind uses pulse to control fashion, this kind of driver and electric machinery closed circuit, but do not feedback numerical control system, this kind of driver is in go up somehow can call control of servo of open loop pilot. Another kind uses voltage to control fashion, the on any account that carries voltage undertakes the rotate speed of electric machinery is controlled, the feedback signal of electric machinery undertakes to numerical control system through driver feedback the position is controlled. When choosing driving unit, the price that also should consider driving unit is in the scale in machine tool of whole platform numerical control. The general choice pace with inferior value of machine tool of whole platform numerical control takes driving unit, and the machine tool with higher price chooses servo driving unit. But choose driving unit while, also want those who consider driving unit and numerical control system to match a question, the choice must choose the servo driving unit of closed circuit when closed-loop control system. Communication servo is in a lot of performance sides excel pace enters electric machinery. But in a few requirements not tall circumstance also enters electric machinery to make executive motor via commonly used pace. So, the design that controlling a system wants to consider integratedly to control the element of the many sided such as requirement, cost in the process, choose proper control electric machinery. 4, functional choiceAbove is according to the treatment of numerical control system precision has a consideration, divide this beyond, consider from the functional choice of numerical control system even. 4.1 control axis The amount of axis of control of numerical control system also is the key of the choice. Can divide by the amount that controls an axis wait for two axes linkage, four-axle linkage, much axis linkage. The amount that controls an axis is more, the form that the machine tool can process is more complex, dan Jicheng is jumped over originally tall. Eye front cut cuts a machine tool to use linkage of two linear and mobile axes commonly, those who have taper unit is add 2 linear and mobile axes. High-grade system criterion the axis of linkage is more, manufacturing industry of machine tool of delegate line cut is highest of the state is system of numerical control of 5 axes linkage, among them 4 axes are axis of XYUV linear shift respectively, an axis makes fluctuation move point-blank for Z axis axis, a more complex space part can be machined when 5 axes linkage. Of course the support of the numerical control system with this high-grade need, servo and software, extremely tall also to the requirement of the machine tool. Control axis is more, the price of numerical control system rises into geometrical progression. Accordingly, when selecting numerical control system, want to undertake choosing according to the athletic rod of machine tool itself, redundant control axis can not raise the control precision of the machine tool, raised the cost of numerical control system instead. 4.2 graphs show Systematic graph displays a function, this function is used at imitate spare parts to machine a process, the cut way that shows true cutting tool to go up in workpiece, can choose rectangular coordinates to fasten a medium plane, what also can choose different perspective is three-dimensional and stereo, can machining while make real time show, what also can lock up decided means dirty to machine a process in machinery is fast depict, it is one kind examines spare parts machine program, raise process designing efficiency and the effective tool that monitor in real time. When the function of machine tool of cut of numerical control line is configured, this kind of afore-mentioned problems often are being encountered, the design that regards a numerical control as the machine tool and salesperson and investment purchaser, must be clear that skill controls all sorts of function use of the system, configure economy for the user according to the actual condition of the machine tool reasonable, function and the numerical control machine tool with higher than be being compared price, reduce needless waste.
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